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Internet-of-Things Security — Info Sources

November 30, 2016

The security of distributed systems, whether cloud based, on-premises, or hybrid cloud/on-premises, is a complex subject by itself.  Add securely connecting a bunch of hardware things to a distributed software system and you have more complexity, new requirements, new techniques, and new technologies to deal with.  Hopefully this article will shed some light on some of the current best mental models, best practices, and technologies to use in designing and building secure Internet-of-Things (IoT) systems.

Please keep in mind the key points made in my previous blog article “Reinventing the Wheel is Not Necessary for IoT Software Architecture”:

  1. It’s best to use an end-to-end system perspective when thinking about IoT Systems. They are much more complex that just the internet and some things.
  2. “When developing IoT Systems we can use all of the software structural (aka software architecture) knowledge we’ve gained over the past decade from developing secure, mission critical distributed systems, and Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), and Cloud Systems.”

The info sources listed below often apply the above perspective and techniques since they generally serve to facilitate the timely development of secure IoT systems, as well as high quality IoT systems.

To get you started, consider what happened with weak IoT security on October 16, 2016 — Hacked Cameras, DVRs Powered Today’s Massive Internet Outage, by Brian Krebs.  We can do better than that!  Below are the most useful sources of information on security of IoT systems that I’ve encountered in 2016.

General IoT Security Info Sources

First, if you only have time to consult one of the info sources listed in this blog, make sure it is viewing the recommended parts of the following video.  That is where you will initially get the greatest return for the time you spend.  This video provides an excellent overview of key technology agnostic concepts and techniques in IoT security: Secure your IoT with Azure IoT by Arjmand Samuel of Microsoft.  It shows a presentation at Microsoft’s Ignite conference in September 2016.  The first quarter of the video (about 10 minutes) is an overview of the key general security issues in IoT, including the roles and concerns of various stakeholders.  I found it most helpful, identifying the specific challenges of why IoT security is hard.

Then it presents an excellent mental model of a “Trustworthy Internet of Things”, with pressure put on any IoT system by the Environment, Security Threats, Human Error, and System Faults.  Counteracting these pressures are the design and implementation of the IoT system’s aspects of Security, Privacy, Safety, and Reliability throughout the entire system.  I believe this mental model, along with the roles of various stakeholders, are key concepts to drive the effective design and execution of the planning, development and operation of a solid, secure IoT system.

The middle part of the video outlines specifically how various Microsoft technologies fit into this model.  It spans the Windows 10 IoT operating system down at the “things” level, to all the way up to the preconfigured Azure cloud IoT Suites available.  These IoT Suites are full cloud software systems specifically targeted at remote monitoring, or predictive maintenance, etc.

The last part of the video is a “must see”.  Starting at around 28 minutes is a super valuable description of the concept of “Defense in Depth”.   Plus, it shows how to use the STRIDE threat analysis model to systematically identify security threats and then counteract each one with a “Defense in Depth” approach.  I found the 10 minutes spent walking through an example of how to apply the STRIDE threat analysis model to be vital to being able to build strong security into an IoT system.  STRIDE is part of Microsoft’s long standing “Security Development Lifecycle” (SDL).  They use it internally on the software products and services they sell, plus they support their customers using it as well with free tools, videos and tutorials at SDL.  The SDL concepts and practices around STRIDE (as well as other areas in SDL) are largely technology agnostic.

Second is Clemens Vasters’ excellent blog article “Service Assisted Communication” for Connected Devices. This is a must read article since it shows specific ways how using services to communicate with devices can both dramatically simplify an IoT solution, while also significantly increasing its security.  One key concept used is that devices always act in the role of a client, calling services.  “Devices do not accept unsolicited network information.  All connections and routes are established in an outbound-only fashion.”  Mr. Vasters presents 7 fundamental principles.  They are backed up with a detailed exploration into device connectivity through a number of the network layers, exploring the strengths and weaknesses of various security techniques.

Third, the Microsoft article Internet of Things Security Architecture – This is mainly about technology agnostic security techniques.  It has a detailed example of using the STRIDE threat modeling analysis technique as a starting point to secure an IoT system.  It goes on to show how to design the architecture of various portions of an IoT system to counteract threats at each level, with a “defense in depth” perspective.  I consider this a must read article.

Fourth, the Microsoft article Internet of Things Security Best Practices – This deals with “Defense in Depth” and outlines the best practices of various roles in the IoT world.  For example, the roles of the IoT hardware manufacturer/integration, the IoT solution developer, etc.  This role based approach is useful in being able to focus on security concerns specific to key participants involved in developing and operating an IoT system.

Fifth, in June 2015 the Industrial Internet Consortium released its Industrial Internet Reference Architecture (IIRA) document (click to download a pdf).  It outlines the requirements and the conceptual system architecture needed to build industrial strength IoT systems.  This is about a lot more than hooking up your toaster to the internet!  The 5 founding members of IIC are AT&T, Cisco, GE, Intel, and IBM.  Note that most of them have deep experience in distributed systems and/or Cloud Systems.

Section 9 of this IIRA document, “Security, Trust, and Privacy”, gives extensive coverage to all aspects of IoT security.  Being familiar with the ideas, terms and techniques presented in Section 9 will give you a strong base in what is recommended by many of the leading, highly experienced companies in the IoT realm.  You can greatly advance your knowledge from their experience as expressed in this section.

Microsoft Specific IoT Technology Info Sources

Here are useful links to Microsoft IoT Security documentation generally focused on specific Microsoft technologies.  However, many of them also contain valuable general IoT security concepts that are technology agnostic.

First, the 11 page Microsoft white paper “Securing your Internet of Things from the Ground Up – Comprehensive built-in security features of the Microsoft Azure IoT Suite” (click to download a pdf) provides an introduction to Microsoft’s Azure IoT services using most of the concepts outlined above.  Here you will see them in action.  And, roughly the same information is presented in the online document Internet of Things security from the ground up.

Second, the online Microsoft document Securing your IoT deployment provides the details of securing Azure IoT systems in 3 security areas – Device Security, Connection Security, and Cloud Security.  It provides a more fine-grained-detail look at IoT security than most of the other info sources listed above.

Third, the minute details of device authentication and security credentials used by the Azure IoT Hub service are presented in Control access to IoT Hub.  This shows exactly how robust device security is achieved.

Finally, Azure IoT Hub Developer Guide provides a list of references to documents on over 15 topic areas concerning the use of the Azure IoT Hub.  You can use this as a guide to perusing the IoT Hub documentation.

I hope you benefit as much from the above info sources as I have.

George Stevens

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dotnetsilverlightprism blog by George Stevens is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Based on a work at

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